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Photoshop Tutorials - Iris Blur
Applying a shallow depth of field to an image can concentrate the viewrs' eyes on the actual subject of the image, without being distracted by an over-fussy background.
For the photographer, it needs some fairly specialised equipment, lenses etc.  In versions of Photoshop prior to CS6, this effect could only be achieved with advanced selection techniques, several layers, masks and a depth channel.
Iris Blur
In CS6, this whole process has been simplified.  With a suitable image showing, go to FILTER...Blur...Iris Blur.  A new screen will appear:
Iris Blur points
The main part of this new screen will show your image with an elliptical 'control' in it.  The central axis of this control (shown circled in red, above) can be dragged to where you want the focal point to be. The four outer points (shown circled in lilac, above) can be dragged and show where the blur is 'full strength' and the four white, inner points (shown circled in yellow, above) can be dragged individually to where you want the blur to begin.
The area of the image between the outer (lilac) points and the inner (yellow) points is feathered.
Iris Blur intensity
The central axis can be dragged clockwise to increase the intensity of the blur.  All of above manipulations will show up in a 'live' preview.
Blur Tools To the right of this main window are a number of controls.  Their effect will depend on the actual subject in the image, but it's work playing about with these sliders.
 
Blur Bokeh Just below the Blur Tools palette are the Bokeh sliders.  What is 'bokeh'? 

It is Japanese in origin and refers to blur or a blurry quality, and in photography it is a very recognizable technique.

Let’s first understand the fundamental differences between soft focus and bokeh. In soft focus photography there is an intentional blurriness added to the subject while the actual edges are retained in sharp focus, but in bokeh it is only an element of the image that is intentionally blurred. Additionally, bokeh tends to emphasize certain points of light in the image as well.

Bokeh Effect

Bokeh tends to appear in the areas of an image that remain outside the focal region. Because of this the most common technique used to add it is a shallow depth of field created through a wide open aperture.

In order to create an image that contains what is known as “good” bokeh, the photoshopper must first find a subject which is easily captured in a close up or short focal distance.

Bokeh
The above is an original image without the bokeh effect applied.
Bokeh Effect
This image has had the bokeh effect applied.